Freud’s Civilization and its Discontents and Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil
The following paper examines the way in which Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche addressed the concept of human nature and of the society in which human nature was bound.
This paper endeavors to explore the theories behind human nature, the impact of the world that Freud and Nietzsche were living in at the time, religion and approaching utopia through the works “Civilization and its Discontents” by Freud and “Beyond Good and Evil” by Nietzsche.
“Regarding human nature, Freud was reticent in purporting that we are inherently sinful, but rather that we come in this world full of Id. This wild, instinctive foundation is the basis upon which the infrastructure of the human psyche is erected. We are born into a dangerous world and we endeavor to evade pain and secure pleasure. Freud perceives the Id as a product of our evolutionary progress as Darwin outlined it (e.g. natural selection needs a conflict to ensue for staying alive as well as reproduction). So Freud’s assessment of human nature is rather cynical, we are fundamentally egotistical self-justifying pursuers of hedonistic satisfactions, which comprises aggression and sex.”