Political Change in the Mideast
Harik argues that the formation of a democratic government requires a democratic political culture, and vice versa (Harik, 1994: 358). Consequently, any analysis of the potential for political change in any given Middle Eastern country requires a survey of the democratization or not of its government as well as an understanding of the political, economic and social nature and freedom of its people. Historically, authoritarian governments have ruled Middle Eastern countries. However, Harik also argues that Islam itself contains the seeds of individual dignity and group integrity that can form the basis of a social order that would support a democratic government (1994: 345).
On the other hand, Al-Azmeh appears to argue that only a now-discredite